Xuande official kiln blue glaze, decoration, modeling, identification features

The official kiln of Xuande kiln has a very important position in the history of ceramics development in China. It reflects the social, economic, cultural, artistic and ideological concepts of the time.

Ming Xuande Blue and White Porcelain is an important part of the history of the development of Chinese ceramics. It is an overview of the Ming and Qing dynasties in Xuande (1426–1435, Ming Xuanzong Zhu Zhanji). It is famous for its primitive simplicity, elegant shape, bright glaze and colorful ornamentation. Compared with other blue-and-white porcelains of the Ming Dynasty, its firing technology reached the highest peak and became one of China's famous porcelain items. Its achievements are praised as "a new generation is not strange." "Jingdezhen Taolu" evaluates Xuande Porcelain: "All materials are refined and blue and white are the most expensive."

The number of blue and white kiln burnt in the Xuande official kiln is also unprecedented. According to the records of the “Dai Ming Conference”, in Xuande's eight years (1433), the court once issued a mission to burn 344,500 pieces of dragon and phoenix porcelain in Jingdezhen. . Among them, blue flowers accounted for the majority, which shows that the scale and quantity of firing are large. The products not only serve the needs of the court's daily life, but also serve as a large number of products for overseas marketing, as well as a gift for foreign hirers, and have become a testimony of cultural exchanges between East and West.

Most of the kiln's blue and white flowers are simple and summarized. They are slightly inferior to the official kiln in terms of strength and quality. They lack moisture in the glaze, and are free to paint. They use a pen more sloppy, and the composition of the screen is very particular about the artistic conception. It is full of folk atmosphere, lively and interesting.

Cheng Shu wrote in the Qing Dynasty's “Nan Kiln Notes” in Xuan Kiln. Xuande Blue and White “A type of Xuan Kiln is extremely elegant and simple. There are shades of material, and the majestic yet dignified, the blue and white flowers have oozing, and the tin rust.” In Ming Dynasty's “Guangzhi”, “Benzhao, Xuan De (Xuande) and Chengcheng (Chenghua) Two Kilns are preferred, Xuan Kiln wins with blue and white flowers, and kiln is multi-colored.” Ming Zhang Yingwen “The Qing Dynasty” In the kiln description "I'm the ancestral temple of Xuanmiao Temple, the material is thick, the faint orange peels form, the ice cracks the blood pattern, and several are the officials and the kiln enemies. That is the dark flower, the red flower, the blue flower, all There is no ancient generation, and it is a generation of unique products." During the Qing Emperor Qianlong years, Zhu Xi's “Tao Shuo” talked about the Xuande Kiln. “According to this, when Ming Xuan Kiln was extremely prosperous, the choice of materials, preparation of samples, painting machines, and models were all excellent.”

The official kiln of Xuande kiln has a very important position in the history of ceramics development in China. It reflects the social, economic, cultural, artistic and ideological concepts of the time. As the porcelain of the court and exquisite artwork, it has a unique artistic charm. This has a lot to do with the perfection of the system and the maturity of technology. The work has always been respected by later generations and is a model of the blue-and-white flower craft. From the Chenghua era of the Ming dynasty to the late Qing dynasty, a large amount of firings took place. The most successful were the Qing Dynasty Kangxi, Yongzheng, and Qianlong dynasties. The Qing dynasty's old Xuande blue and white was used as a blueprint, and it was carefully burned. The shape, size, and decoration were all It is very similar to the original and has the charm of Xuande blue and white flowers, such as the imitation Xuande blue and white flower bowls of women in the Kangxi period, the pattern of twisting branches and flowers, the bowls and flowers in the branches and branches, the pattern of fish in the branches and branches, and the water and the animal pattern in the sea. Chaoxuande Blue Bamboo Stone Banana Leaf Pattern Jade Spring Bottle, Flower & Fruit Plum Bottle, Flower Pattern Book Light, Dragon Pattern Sunflower Wash, Seawater Dragon Ball Bottle, Bottle Ear Hoist Bottle, Morning Glory Quartet Bottle Qianlong Dynasty imitation Xuande blue-and-white cans, phoenix-patterned cans, pine-bamboo figurines, lotus plates, flowers and fruits, etc., have reached a very high level.

Ming Xuande blue and white porcelain glaze Xuande blue and white flower carcass is thicker than Yongle, fine and delicate fetal quality, white and hard. Mei bottles, large plates, and large pots are mostly unglazed white fine sands. Their hands are very smooth and there are red spots of flint on their feet. Small and medium pieces are glazed.

The glazed hypertrophy moisturizes, the luster is soft and not glare, more white in the pan-green, commonly known as "bright blue glaze." The glaze is not very smooth, like orange peel, commonly known as "orange peel glaze", very few have open films. If viewed under a high magnification magnifying glass, the glaze is full of large and small bubbles, and even small bubbles rub large bubbles. No matter what kind of porcelain is made by Xuande, it is almost all glazed.

The kiln carcass of the kiln was made of porcelain stone and kaolin clay, which was white and clean, with a good degree of porcelainization. The carcass was thinner than the Yongle Min Kiln. The colored eggs are mostly pale blue, and the enamel is bright and shiny, with glazed bubbles and orange brown eyes.

Ming Xuande blue and white porcelain shape Xuande blue and white shape is rich, a variety of forms, very rich in changes. From a few centimeters of bird food cans to tens of centimeters of large cans, large cylinders everything.

Bottles include plum bottles, spring bottles of jade pots, bile bottles, thong bottles, square bottles, folded square bottles, sky bottles, treasury bottles, and flat bottle bottles.

There are kettle pots, gourd mouth pots, pot spring pots, pots, pots, flat pots, back pots, pear pots, pot pots and so on.

Tanks include strong tanks, smash tanks, cover tanks, straight tanks, canopies, bird feeders, and lotus leaf lids.

Bowls include bowls, flower bowls, pier bowls, chrysanthemum bowls, chicken bowls, bowls, bowls, high bowls, and ten high bowls.

There are open plate, sampan plate, folded plate, and Linghua plate.

There are pot-shaped flower pots, eight-edge flower pots, four-way flower pots, narcissus pots, and folding bowls.

Wash mouthwash, foot washing, diamond wash and so on.

There are also drips, pen tubes, oil lamps, octagonal candlesticks, aromatherapy, slag doubling, leeches, chin care, flower pouring, plate holders, goblet cups, enamel, boxes, beans, kiwi, kiwi, pomegranate, rectangular Furnace, three-legged tube furnace, fish tank and so on.

Ming Xuande blue and white porcelain decoration Xuande blue and white porcelain decorated with ornamentation, decorative paintings are very rules, never from the edge. There are two types of brushes, real pens and sketched renderings. The actual pens are mostly fine lines, and the sketches and renderings are mostly thick lines and ornamentations. The lines are smooth and the lines are clear. The ornamentation is rough and free to draw without outlines, commonly known as "a brushstroke painting."

The range of ornamentation is relatively broad, with flowers, birds, insects, and landscapes. Pattern painting uses a small brush to fill the color. Because of the limited material, it is necessary to continuously repaint the painting. This leaves the ornament with many shades of traces. Its composition has reached generalization, exaggeration and choice, and has enhanced decorativeness. In addition, Xuande blue and white flowers are also used in combination with mold printing, sculpting and other methods. Looking at Xuandeqing pattern decoration is a wide range of materials, a new composition of composition, rich decoration techniques, painting is grand and magnificent, with a strong artistic appeal.

The main motifs are wreathed branches and branches, and there are twigs of peonies, lotus branches, twigs of chrysanthemums, twigs of Ganoderma lucidum, branches of morning glory, pine-bamboo repentance, gems and flowers, gardenia, fungus, lilies, and lotus flowers. Camellia, alfalfa, alfalfa, lotus algae, bamboo stone plantain. The most common is a combination of camellia, chrysanthemum, peony, and lotus. And often several kinds of flowers are used repeatedly. The entangled lotus flower is also more common in Xuande blue and white porcelain, mostly bilateral lotus petals. The depiction is very smooth, the lines are rough, free and lively. The layout of the painting method is based on the changes of the instrument type, which is both flexible and regular. It shows the skill of the decorative arts and the skill of painting at that time.

The melon and fruit patterns include pomegranate, persimmon, lychee, grape, and peach.

There are dragon dragons, dragons, dragons, dragons, dragons, dragons, dragons, dragons, dragons, lotuses, dragons, peony dragons and so on.

The Xuande dragon pattern depicts the most lively of the Ming Dynasty. The dragon head is powerful and powerful. The dragon's mouth is like a pig. The hair is long and upward. There are two horns. The dragon body stretches and slender, and it is brave and fierce. Three claws are more common, reflecting the palace dragon pattern. The sense of deterrence. In addition to the composition of the dragon with clouds and seawater, it was often combined with the phoenix. Herbal dragon often ganoderma lucidum, the end of the roll to grass.

Fengfeng has a group of phoenixes, Yunfeng, Shuangfeng, Huafeng, Longfeng and others.

Other animal patterns include fish and algae pattern, paralyzed pattern, flying elephant pattern, linglin pattern, sea animal wave pattern, lion ball pattern, and bird pattern.

Character lines due to Su Ma from the green contaminated by the constraints of the raw materials, not a lot of firing. There are mainly ladies, boasting phoenixes, immortals and phoenixes, infant opera figures, poetry and paintings, and song and dance people. The ladies are often drawn together with the courtyard pavilion and the style is quiet, such as the ladies garden, the moon, and the moon.

Seawater patterns appear abundantly in Xuande blue and white flowers, and they are also most adept at it. Apart from being used for a small number of thematic motifs, they are mostly used as auxiliary ornamentations. They are depicted with realistic techniques, and the seawater is turbulent and turbulent.

In addition, the garden scenery, mountain stone railings, and the lotus treasures (the order of the eight treasures of the Ming Dynasty: rounds, snails, umbrellas, covers, flowers, fish, bottles, intestines), Arabic script, Sanskrit text, and Tibetan script often appear in blue and white porcelain. on.

The auxiliary patterns are more commonly seen in the positive and negative aspects of the pattern, positive and negative characters, string patterns, cross defects, **, tangled flowers, Yanglian, banana leaves, honeysuckle, Turtle Kam, vertical clouds, dot patterns, Flowers, grass rolls, banana leaves, honeysuckle, lotus roots, lotus petals covering the top, Ruyi cloud head lines and so on.

Ming Xuande blue and white porcelain paragraph know knowledge of Xuande blue and white has full body, porcelain plate without exception, all the money, other according to the different shapes of utensils in the mouth, ears, neck, bowl heart, sole, flow, abdominal writing . In the early days, the four-character money was used, and many other letters were written. There are six characters and four characters. The six-character section has a double-circle, double-line script, a six-character cross-section, and a six-character cross-section. Four-character models have double-lined double-circle script, four-character cross-section, four-character cross-section, and four-character script. Mainly in the center of the object within the blue-and-white double-circle six-character double-draft script, "the Ming Dynasty Xuande system" mostly, and individual use "made", "Xuande year system" four characters less. Civilian kiln mostly books "Fu", "Shou" and Sanskrit.

Blue-and-white double-circle six-word double-line booklet is on the bottom of bottles, cans, bowls, dishes, pots, plates and other utensils. Six-character cross-section books are available on cylinders, bowls, bird food jars, chokers, oyster dishes, and high bowls. The six-character vertical book is generally written on incense burners, bowl bowls, and pot handles. The four-character general book is on the bowl, on the bottom of the tall cup, and on the shoulder of the plum bottle. The knowledge of high bowls is generally in the bowl heart, mostly double-circle six characters. The plate is a glazed bottomed heart book, and the plate is sanded at the shoulder, side or under the fold.

The structure of the font structure of Xuande Blue and White Letters is very regular. The distance between words and characters and the strokes are of medium thickness. They mimic the brushstrokes of Jin Tang and Xiao Biao. They are quite appealing. The writing method is vigorous and powerful, with neat writing, a dignified structure, and clear, simple and honest characters. The ancient ceramic connoisseur Mr. Sun Weizhou summed up Xuande's knowledge and made a song called "Xuande's annual money body, engraved with Yin and Yang Yin, Hengshua spent four pairs of single gardens, and the Jin Tang Xiaoxie was the most out of the group." The "Large" character in the cover book is short and long. There is no cross in the "heart" of the word "German". This is the use of the archaic style in the Chinese tablets. The two parts of "German" are very tight and seem to be uncoordinated. The horizontal side of "clothes" in the word "made" does not exceed "knife", and the hook of the fourth stroke of "cloth" is not connected to the fifth one. There are very few writings in the book, and the double circle is often dark and light. Some characters in the six characters are of different sizes. The font is clear and rounded. The landing pen is pointed. The word “de” has a cross on the “heart” and the word “Xuan” has a little left. However, the horizontal and the right side of a hook droop, the word "clothes" in the lower part of the word "made" is shorter.

Cradle your head in soft, plush warmth this winter season in our hat. Named after the wood grain pattern adorning the outside of this handsome beanie, it will make you look and feel as cool as the weather this season. Enjoy the casual fit, especially on cold days when the full fleece lining keeps your ears and head warm and toasty. this fully flexible leaves you enough room to not only cover your head, but also gives you the option of protecting your ears, thanks to its extra long length and double thickness. 

Winter Hat

Winter Hat,Kids Winter Hat,Knitted Winter Hat,Winter Panel Hat,Fleece Hat

Jun Ao Accessories Co., Ltd. , http://www.sportingheadwear.com